Is a cucumber a fruit or a vegetable?

Crisp, fresh cucumbers are a delight, but occasionally they can be a bit confusing. In particular, the question of whether cucumbers are fruits or vegetables comes up from time to time. What is the distinction between fruits and vegetables, and why does it matter as long as you know how to grow them? If you’re curious or confused, then you’re in the right place. We’ll explain everything you need to know about the differences between fruits and vegetables, what cucumbers are classified as, and why it’s important to know.

What’s the difference between fruits and vegetables?

Although we treat them like they’re two different types of plants, fruits and vegetables have a much more interesting relationship to each other than you might assume. To start, fruits are a specific part of a plant. Not every plant grows fruit, but every plant that does grows them in largely the same way. Flowers bloom and are then pollinated. The ovaries of the flower then grow one or more seeds, which the fruit forms around.

Vegetables aren’t tied to one specific part of the plant, but can instead be any part. The roots, leaves, stems, fruit, and even flower buds of a plant can be a vegetable. Instead, whether or not a food is a vegetable is based on how we eat it. If it’s eaten in a savory meal, or served alongside a protein, then it’s a vegetable.

This also means that whether or not a food is technically a vegetable can vary between regions and cultures. For example, in some parts of the southern US, it’s not at all unusual to find pork cooked with apple slices. In this case, apples would technically be a vegetable, although it might not be called one.

Three cucumbers growing on a vine

What are cucumbers?

Cucumbers are actually both fruits and vegetables. Their wide range of culinary uses, including in salads, sandwiches, and as pickle slices on hamburgers, classifies them as vegetables. Additionally, cucumbers and pickles, when eaten on their own, are more savory than sweet. In general, vegetables tend to be less sweet than fruit, and this extends to fruits that are also vegetables.

On the other hand, the way they grow classifies them as a fruit. In fact, cucumbers are berries. This is because they grow from a single flower, with only one ovum (as opposed to aggregate fruits like raspberries, which form from a single flower with multiple ovaries). They’re also divided into three layers, an exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp.

The exocarp is the outer layer or peel, while the mesocarp is the fleshy interior. The endocarp is the innermost layer, surrounding the seeds. In a cucumber, this endocarp is soft, which is what makes it a berry.

Cucumber cut into several slices

Why does it matter?

It’s helpful to know that cucumbers are vegetables when it comes to using and cooking them. Since vegetables tend to be less sweet, recognizing cucumbers as a vegetable gives you a general understanding of how cucumbers can be used. It can also give you a general idea about where you might find cucumbers in a grocery store, since fruits and vegetables are sometimes displayed in different locations.

Knowing that cucumbers are a fruit, and understanding how fruits grow, is actually quite useful for gardeners. This is because cucumber flowers are less appealing to pollinators and sometimes go unpollinated. Since flowers need to be pollinated for fruit to grow, gardeners occasionally need to step in and hand pollinate cucumber flowers. If someone didn’t know that cucumbers were fruit, then they might not know when to assist in pollination, and become confused or distraught when they’re cucumber harvest was unusually small.

Finally you have the answer you’ve been looking for. What you do with the information is up to you, though! You can use it as a fun fact, or to improve your gardening and cooking routines. Perhaps you might even take the opportunity to explore other foods on your plate, to see how many other secret fruits you might be eating. On the other hand, you can investigate your garden for potential vegetables. If you have edible flowers in your garden, you might want to try adding them to some meals. Who knows, you might find your new favorite vegetable that way!

Editors' Recommendations