Fertilizers are one of the most commonly used methods to promote healthy growth in plants. They can be used to make up for poor soil, or to give plants a boost right before blooming or fruiting. Using fertilizers in outdoor gardens can be fairly simple, but what about indoor plants? They have less soil, so does that mean they need less fertilizer, or to be fertilized less often? If you have questions about how often to fertilize your indoor plants, we have answers.
Most indoor plants will benefit from regular or semi-regular fertilization. Plants get the majority of the nutrients they need from the soil, but the soil has to get those nutrients from somewhere, too. In the wild, soil gets the nutrients from its composition, decaying plant matter, insects, and wildlife. Indoors, though, soil has fewer fresh nutrients being added to it, which makes potted plants more likely to run out of nutrients.
Plants growing in a hydrogarden will run into the same problem. The plants get their nutrients from the water, but if the water is a closed system with nothing new being added to it, the nutrients will run out eventually. The exception to this is air plants, since the air in your home isn’t a closed system. However, you can give them some liquid fertilizers if they’re suffering from malnutrition.
Some of the common signs of nutrient deficiencies are:
- Discolored leaves
- Stunted growth
- Delayed blooming
- Unusually small flowers
These symptoms can be caused by other things, such as pests and disease. Once other options have been ruled out and you’re sure the cause is a nutrient deficiency, then you should fertilize your plants to course correct. In mild cases, the damage can be reversed, so it’s important to catch malnutrition early.
There are many factors that can contribute to how often you should be fertilizing your indoor plant, but here are a few of the most important ones:
- Type and size of plant
- Type and amount of soil
- Season and climate
- Type of fertilizer
Different plants have different nutritional needs. Plants that are larger, tend to have larger flowers or fruits, or that naturally grow in nutritionally dense, rich soil will need more frequent fertilization. On the other hand, plants that are smaller, or that naturally grow in poor or sandy soil, will need less frequent fertilization.
Dense soil holds onto nutrients more readily than loose, sandy soil. As such, denser soil needs less frequent fertilization, while looser soils need more frequent fertilization. In a similar vein, if there’s less soil in general, then your plant will deplete the nutrients more quickly, meaning you’ll need to fertilize it more often.
Season and climate are important factors for many, but not all, plants. Most plants tend to go dormant during the winter. Since they aren’t growing, they don’t need fertilizer. However, if you live in a warmer climate or if your home is well heated, then this dormancy might be delayed or skipped entirely. Plants that bloom or fruit use more nutrients while they grow these flowers or fruit, so knowing what season your plant produces them is important for your fertilization schedule.
Finally, there are different types of fertilizer. For houseplants, the two most common are liquid and slow-release. Slow-release fertilizers stay in the soil, providing nutrients for a longer period of time. Liquid fertilizers are typically mixed with water, which dilutes them, and are given more frequently. Both fertilizers spread out the release of nutrients to avoid over-saturating the soil, but are applied with different frequencies.
As you’ve probably guessed from the list of factors, every plant is going to need its own unique feeding schedule. The best way to set up your schedule is to think about the needs of your specific plant or plants. Start by going through the list of factors one at a time. Is your plant a heavy feeder, or is it pretty hands-off? What is the potting soil like? What about your climate? This will give you a good estimate of whether you’ll need frequent fertilization or a more relaxed schedule.
When choosing a type of fertilizer, take into account how much water your plant needs. Since liquid fertilizers are applied through water, a plant that needs frequent fertilizer applications but is sensitive to overwatering would likely do better with a slow-release fertilizer. Both slow-release and liquid fertilizers come with instructions which you should read carefully before using them. These instructions typically include a recommended feeding schedule, which should help you choose the best fertilizer for your plant’s needs.
Some of your process will likely be trial and error when you first begin fertilizing your indoor plants. However, if you use these tips, you can save a lot of time and effort. Your plant will be sure to thank you for ensuring it has proper nutrition. Just set your schedule, feed your plant, and watch it grow!
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